There are many different theorists and perspectives that people have on counselling. Each one of these can be applied to counselling. The different techniques that are outline can be applied to different aspects of counselling. Each approach has positives and negatives that need to be considered.
The psychodynamic theory stems from the work of Sigmund Freud. It is suggested that almost all complementary theories stem from the work of Freud. Psycho dynamic theory relates to unconscious motivation, psychosexual stages of development, innate sexual and aggressive drives, links between childhood and present behaviour and the nature of defence mechanisms. (Goodtherapy.org, 2013) The word psychodynamic is used to describe the models of therapy that have evolved from psychoanalysis. All of the psychodynamic approaches acknowledge the influence of the past on the present, and also the ways that people try to defend themselves against unpleasant experiences. The psychodynamic approach focuses on helping clients to identify hidden or unconscious factor that influence behaviour. (Jacobs, 1999)
One of the techniques used in psychodynamic counselling is free association. Free association was first used by Freud to describe the process of encouraging his ‘patients’ to say whatever they liked on the grounds that whatever occurred to them would be relevant and revealing. In psychodynamic theory clients are encouraged to talk at their own pace and to express their feelings and thoughts no matter how insignificant they may appear to be. (Hough, 2006) In 1938 Freud stated that
‘Words have a magical power. They can bring either the greatest happiness or deepest despair; they can transfer knowledge from teacher to student; words enable the orator to sway his audience and dictate its decisions. Words are capable of arousing the strongest emotions and prompting all men’s actions.’
Another technique that is used is dream analysis. Freud regarded dreams...