What is it?
The Amendment is part of the Bill of Rights and the Constitution designed the federal government to be a government of limited or enumerated powers. This means that the federal government only has powers over the things that are specifically given to it in the Constitution. All other powers are reserved to the States. It was passed by Congress in September 1789 and Ratified in December 1791
How was it made?
After the war of independence, the exploratory committee was formed. This committee studied how the colonies might join together and submitted its proposal to Congress in the summer of 1777. The plan was discussed and revised and formally adopted by Congress in November of that year. It is known as the Articles of Confederation. Each state had to individually choose whether or not it wanted to be a part of this new union. Because of the long lasting Revolutionary War and other issues, the final state, Maryland, did not ratify the Articles until March 1781.
Why did it take so long?
Part of the reason that it took so long for the states to ratify the Articles of Confederation was the huge fear that the American population had of giving up their local rights to a new national government. One of the main arguments at this time was states’ right vs. national rights argument. This meant what rights would be given up to the federal government and rights the states would retain for themselves. A majority of people wanted most rights to stay in the hands of local people, not in the hands of a far away central government.
To help prevent the federal government from taking too much power that it was not granted, the Founding Fathers included this statement in Article II of the Article of Confederation:
"Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled."