Elwyn Cruz
Mr. Walls
APES, Pd. 3
12 December 2015
Chapter 8 Vocab
1. Lithosphere - a 60 mile thick layer that includes the solid upper mantle as well as the crust

2. Convection - the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat

3. Hot Spots - places where molten material from the mantle reaches the lithosphere

4. Theory of Plate Tectonics - Earth's lithosphere is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion

5. Subduction Zone - the place where two lithospheric plates come together, one riding over the other

6. Plate Boundaries
divergent plate boundaries - when oceanic plates move apart as if on a giant conveyor belt
convergent plate boundaries - when plates move toward one another and collide, and the lighter layer goes on top of the heavier, subducted layer
transform boundary - a plate boundary where two plates move/slide past each other in opposite directions
7. Ring of Fire - area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur

8. Epicenter - the exact point on the surface of Earth directly above the location where the rock ruptures
9. Richter Scale - a measure of the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake

10. Rock Cycle - an idealized cycle of processes undergone by rocks in the earth's crust, involving igneous intrusion, uplift, erosion, transportation, deposition as sedimentary rock, metamorphism, remelting, and further igneous intrusion

11. Igneous Rocks - rocks that form directly from magma. They are classified as basaltic or granitic

12. Extrusive vs Intrusive - rock that has been extruded at the earth's surface as lava or other volcanic deposits, intrusive is hidden in the earth

13. Sedimentary Rocks - rocks that form when sediments like mud, sand,...

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