Advertising & Branding, Marketing, Marketing Theory, Sales & Distribution
The 4 P’s of Marketing – The Marketing Mix strategies
March 3, 2011 Arpan Kar
The term “marketing mix” was coined in the early 1950s by Neil Borden in his American Marketing Association presidential address. This is one of the preliminary knowledge every marketer must have and is considered to be the basics of every marketing theory, which emerged henceforth.
The basic major marketing management decisions can be classified in one of the following four categories, namely Product, Price, Place (distribution) and Promotion.
Product: It is the tangible object or an intangible service that is getting marketed through the program. Tangible products may be items like consumer goods (Toothpaste, Soaps, Shampoos) or consumer durables (Watches, IPods). Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry and information technology based services or codes-based products like cellphone load and credits. Product design which leads to the product attributes is the most important factor. However packaging also needs to be taken into consideration while deciding this factor. Every product is subject to a life-cycle including a growth phase followed by an eventual period of decline as the product approaches market saturation. To retain its competitiveness in the market, continuous product extensions though innovation and thus differentiation is required and is one of the strategies to differentiate a product from its competitors.
Price: The price is the simply amount a customer pays for the product. If the price outweigh the perceived benefits for an individual, the perceived value of the offering will be low and it will be unlikely to be adopted, but if the benefits are perceived as greater than their costs, chances of trial and adoption of the product is much greater.
Place: Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the...