Paper: Amedeeo Avogardo
Amedeo Avogadro was born in Turin August 9th 1776 to a noble ancient family of Piedmont, Italy. He graduated in ecclesiastical law at the early age of 20 and began to practice. Soon there after he dedicated himself to the study of physics and mathematics, then called positive philosophy, and in 1809 started teaching them at a high school in Vercelli where his family had some property. In 1811, he published an article with the title Essai d'une manière de déterminer les masses relatives des molécules élémentaires des corps, et les proportions selon lesquelles elles entrent dans ces combinaisons, which contains the famous Avogadro's hypothesis.
The title of this famous paper can be roughly translated into English as "Essay on Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies". At that time in 1811, northern Italy was actually under French rule during the era of Napoléon Bonaparte. Avogadro submitted his poem to a French journal. This paper was written in French, not in Italian. In 1820 he became a professor of physics at the University of Turin. After the downfall of Napoléon in 1815, northern Italy was under the rule of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia and Turin was the capital of this kingdom. He was active in the political revolutionary movements of 1821 against the king of Sardinia, and as a result, was removed from his chair in 1823 or, as officially declared, the university was "very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties, in order to be able to give a better attention to his researches". However over time, Avogadro's political isolation became less, as revolutionary ideas received increasing attention from Savoy kings, until in 1848 when Charles Albert granted a modern Constitution Statuto Albertino.
Well before this, following the increasing attention to his works, Avogadro had...