1. Distinguishing characteristics of the Animal Kingdom and their evolutionary advances.
Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes and obtain nutrients by ingestion. They digest food within their own bodies. Their cells lack cell walls that provide strong support in fungi and plants. Most have muscle cells for movement and nerve cell for impulses. Some animals are characterized by a radial or bilateral symmetry.
2. Identify and state the function of the structural components of the animals studied.
Sponges look like a thick-walled sac covered by open holes. Water enters the holes and exits. Their bodies have two layers of cells separated by a gel region. The inner cell has Choanocytes that help sweep water through the sponge’s body.
Cnidarians have stinging cells called Cnidocytes that are used for defense and capturing prey.
Flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity with one opening, the fine branches of it distributing food the animal.
Nematodes are covered by several layers of cuticle. This protects them from drying out and if the worm is parasitic, the cuticle protects the worm from the host’s digestive tract.
Molluscs have a rasping organ called a radula that helps them scrape up food.
Annelids have segmented bodies that allow greater flexibility and mobility.
Arthropods may or may not be segmented but are covered by a exoskeleton that protects the animals and allows muscles attached to it to move the appendages they have.
Echinoderms have a unique feature which is a water vascular system which is network of water-filled canals with branch out tube feet. This allows for locomotion, food, and gas exchange.
3. Identify representatives of the groups studied
Sponges(phylum porifera)- Scypha,
Cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria)- Hydras, sea anemones, corals, jellyfish
Flatworms (phylum Platyhelminthes)- planarians, flukes, tapeworms
Roundworms (phylum nematoda)- Heartworm, free-living nematodes