ANTHRO 100 EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE
The Colonization of New Zealand
Fagan Ch 15, 16, 17
Pa – The Europeans observed numerous fortified camps, pa, built on strategic promontories and rocks. Their ditches, palisades, and fighting stages convinced their visitors that the Maori were warlike people.
Captain James Cook – The first European to accurately chart New Zealand and observe the native peoples. Cook’s landings were often opposed with threats, even violence. All too often the people were truculent and hurled stones and threats with vehement anger. Then, in January 1770, Cook met a group of Maori in Queen Charlotte Sound, across Cook Strait from the modern city of Wellington, who were cooking a dog carcass on a hearth strewn recently butchered human bone.
Meeting houses – Most Maori houses were about 18 to 20 feet long, and about 10 feet across, with a roof about 6 feet high. The whare whakairo, or carved meeting houses, was the largest and most imposing structures in Maori villages.
Ariki – The free people of Maori society were the rangatira, almost a hereditary aristocracy. The rangatira were entitled to express their opinions in tribal gatherings. Commoners, tutua, often considered themselves to be rangatira. The lowest class of Maori society was that of slaves, mainly prisoners of war. A Maori ariki had far more power and belonged to a much more exclusive social order than the arioi of Tahiti. He possessed the dual qualities of mana, personal magnetism and power resulting from his own achievements, and tapu, a form of personal sanctity inherited from his family ancestors.
Samuel Marsden – He was a humorless man of fearless demeanor who had established a model agricultural settlement for freed convicts. He was among those urged the chaplain to bring a mission to the Bay of Islands to counteract the evil ways of the whaling ships that visited New Zealand.
Kororareka – The missionaries looked on this settlement with great disfavor, calling it a “plague spot...