Ap Psych

Ap Psych


40 Studies that Changed Psychology: It’s Not Just About Salivating Dogs!

1. Define classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning is conditioning someone to associate one neutral stimulus with an unconditioned response using the help of the unconditioned stimulus.

2. What are 2 things Pavlov theorized in his theoretical propositions?
Pavlov theorized that the dogs had learned from experience in the lab to expect food following the appearance of certain signals. While these signal stimuli do not naturally produce salivation, the dogs came to associate them with food, and thus responded to them with salivation. Consequently, Pavlov determined that there must be two kinds of reflexes.

3. Define the terms:
CS condition stimulus CR conditioned response
UCS/USunconditioned stimulus UCR/UR unconditioned response

4. Briefly describe Pavlov’s method and results, with respect to the metronome and the food.
After Pavlov had established this controlled research environment, the procedure was quite simple. Pavlov chose food as the unconditioned stimulus. As explained previously, food will elicit the unconditioned response of salivation. Then Pavlov needed to find a neutral stimulus that was, for the dogs, completely unrelated to food. For this he used the sound of the metronome. Over several conditioning trials, the dog was exposed to the ticking of the metronome and then was immediately presented with food

5. What other stimuli did Pavlov condition the dogs to salivate at?

Metronome sound

6. What type of behaviors does classical conditioning focus on?

Classical conditioning focuses on reflexive behavior: those behaviors that are not under your voluntary

7. How is classical conditioning used in the advertising industry?

When we see an advertisement, we hear a joyful noise. The joyful noise...

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