Chapter 10: Thinking and Language
1. The availability heuristic leads us to judge the likelihood of things based on how vivid they are or how readily they come to mind. The past experiences with the results of the test can affect how much effort is put onto the upcoming one. Thinking of the most recent test, which an individual has excelled on without trying, the individual perhaps think he/she does not have to study as hard again. Through availability heuristics, an individual will think of how he/she studied before and if done well, he/she will repeat the same strategies used previously. This heuristic will contribute to poor decision making because you can’t predict the difficulty of the future tests. Thus, if one never studied and excelled on an easy test previously, he/she might think the upcoming tests will also be easy.
The representative heuristic leads us to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how they represent our prototype for a group of items. Depending on the types of test – multiple choice or free response – the effort an individual may put may vary. For harder classes, I will read the whole chapter, go over the notes, and use spacing effect for maximum effect. For easier classes, I will simply discuss about a few important topics with classmates and not worry about them too much. The rumors may also affect the way someone thinks about the future tests. The rumors about the tests may not be factual information because not everyone shares the same characteristics and intelligence level. Therefore, this heuristic will likely to contribute to poor decision making.
The incidents with previous dates could affect if I will ask someone for a date or accept a date. Looking at the past experiences with the dates, I will not ask someone to a date that looks or acts just like the girl I was rejected by previously. Same goes with accepting a date. If someone asked me to a dance and she resembles one of the dates that happens to be the worst dancer...