Hohokam (p. 7-8) Emerged during the 3rd century B.C. when ancestors of the Pima Indians began farming in the Gila River and Salt River valleys of southern Arizona. They built elaborate canal systems for irrigation that enabled them to harvest two crops per year, an astonishing achievement in such an arid environment. To construct their canals, they needed large work forces. They built permanent villages of several hundred people. Drew extensively on materials and ideals outside the Southwest. As in Mexico, ball games were major public events in Hohokam villages.
Cahokia (p. 11) By the 10th century, a large Mississippian center for Indians was centered on Cahokia, located near modern St. Louis. For 250 years they reigned supreme in the American heartland. Beginning in the 13th century they began to experience shortages of food and were challenged militarily by neighboring people.
Great Ice Age (p. 2) Bands of Siberian hunters crossed the expanse of land still linking North America and Asia in the far northern Pacific. As they drifted southward they discovered a hunter’s paradise with Giant mammoths, mastodons, horses, camels. Bison, caribou and moose roamed the continent. By 900 B.C. the Paleo-Indians had dispersed throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Canadian Shield (p. 41) Area around Lake Champlain that was abounding with fish, beaver, otter, and other mammals. Surrounding forests were rich in edible plants. Found in 1609 by Samuel de Champlain (French explorer)
Mound Builders (p.9-12) Mounds constructed and a person standing could watch the sun rise directly over the village center during the spring and summer equinox. Solar observations were the basis for religious beliefs. Examples of Mound Builders were at Poverty Point, Olmec and the Adena.
Pilgrims (p. 44) Expeditionary leaders of the Mayflower, half of which were made up of Separatist Puritans who had...