A PA C I T A T I O N G U I D E
This guide is designed to help you cite the sources of information used in your research projects. It is based on the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001). However, the guidelines presented here have been highly-simplified from the full, official APA style. If you need more information, please consult the full APA publication manual.
Quoting and Paraphrasing
All research papers contain information from other sources. When you use information that has been previously published by someone else, it is important that you avoid plagiarism – presenting someone else's ideas as your own. (Plagiarism is not just cheating; it is also stealing.) There are two ways that you can include other people's ideas and words in your paper without plagiarizing: paraphrasing and quotation.
You can include information from other sources in your paper by paraphrasing, or putting those ideas and concepts into your own words. Here are a few things to remember when paraphrasing: • You must restate the information using both your own words and your own sentences. (You should not use the same sentence structure as the original author. Your writing should show that you have a personal understanding of the ideas you are paraphrasing. • You must cite the source of the paraphrased information with in-text citation. Unless the source is a personal communication, you must also list the source on your References page. (Instructions for both in-text citations and reference lists are in the sections below.)
Original Database Text: Your brain's work begins when it gathers the information you want to learn. It does this through your five senses. Most often, you see or hear the information you want to learn. Scientists call this part of the brain the sensory registers.
Paraphrase: Sensory registers are the part of the brain that enable you to learn through your five senses. Usually this is done by...