Citations – In Text
Campus Writing Program & the IUB Libraries A Quick Guide
Citations are required for all print and electronic sources. These are examples of the most common.
Author’s name in main sentence: year of publication in parentheses More recent work by Troy (2005) has provided support for the notion that memory for faces involves verbal as well as visual information. Author not named in main sentence: author’s name and year of publication in parentheses One study demonstrated that after listening to an hour-long lecture, most people could recall only 23% of its important points (Boredom, 2007). More than one author not named in main sentence: cite in the same parentheses Several recent studies (Pastor, 2002; McDonald, 2003; Farmer, 2005) have supported the idea that many domesticated animals are capable of very complex types of cognitive processing. Several sources by the same author, author’s name in main sentence: years of publications in ascending order in same parentheses Several studies by Gallahad (2001, 2003, 2007a,b) have examined the causes and symptoms of the “knight in shining armor” syndrome. Quotation: use author’s name in main sentence, year of publication in parentheses, with the page or para. number in parentheses at end of quote As Scepton (2005) notes, “the most widely accepted explanation for most psychotherapeutic beneﬁts is the placebo effect” (p. 467). Cheek and Buss (1989) have asserted that “people in numerous cultures greet each other with a form of greeting that Westerners would call a ‘kiss’” (para. 7). Unknown Author: use ﬁrst two or three words of title and year of publication in parentheses at end of sentence Antibacterial soaps target some common microbes (“Microbes Evolve!” 2006). No date: use author’s last name followed by the notation n.d. for “no date” in parentheses at end of sentence It is particularly difﬁcult to diagnose seasonal affective disorder, because of the lack of a standardized test or...