Bertrand Russel Appearance and reality
Throughout history many people have asked if there is any knowledge in the world that in so certain that it can’t have any possible doubt. Betrand Russel states his pinions in his article about appearance and reality. In it he states that we must distinguish appearance from reality, such that we infer reality and we ourselves are not directly acquainted with it. Appearances include things such as colors, sounds, smells, and roughness. In other words the appearance of a chair will change depending how closely we look at it, the sound will change depending how far we are when the noise is made. The reality on the other hand Betrand states is unchanged by our appearances of what we find the table to be.
The article also talks about sense-data and sensation. Betrand tells us that sense-data is our mind telling us how a sound or smell may sense through logic. He states examples such as colours, sounds, smells, roughness and hardness. If I tell you the table in that other room is black your sense data allows you to understand that theirs a black table in the other room. Your sensation comes from actually going to the other room and witnessing it for yourself.
All this knowledge and critical thinking allows us to ask a few questions. Is that table real or do we just perceive it to be real through sense data and our previous sensations. Secondly if its real to us then we perceive it to a physical object which in turn is matter. Matter is anything that takes up space so sense data allows us to put two and two together.
Some other possible counter ways to look at appearance and reality are that our eyes can only see certain magnifications and not to mention distance etc. We need tools to see in the dark and to see miles away. Every single person can have a different sensation on a sight or smell and that is up to us. It is important though to use sense data as a form of common sense but not as an absolute...