APPROACHES OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS
Discourse analysis and Ethnography
Ethnography also called ethnography of communication profounded by Dell Hymes in a seminar paper in 1962. He comes up with a theory that brings together verbal routines, convections and genres. According to Dell Hymes it is important to focus on speech community i.e. a group of people sharing linguistic resources and rules of interaction, expression and interpretation.
Dell Hymes also argues for the inclusion of the speech events, situations, and speech acts.
Speech event is an instant of interaction governed by rules and regulations, speech situations are instances of interactions are not necessarily governed by norms of interaction.
Speech act is the smallest unit of analysis within a speech event. Dell Hymes combines ethnography or description and analysis of culture and linguistics i.e. the description and analysis of language structures are core terminus and interactive with patterns of social organization.
Dell Hymes emphasizes on communicative competence as opposed to linguistic competence.
Communicative Competence refers to the ability of the language user to use language in a multiplicity of environment and to use language appropriately.
Linguistic Competence refers to the potential ability of an ideal a language user to use language.
Dell Hymes distinguishes between EMIC and ETIC investigation of language use.
The EMIC investigation of language use has to do with the insider or a member of a speech community.
The EMIC investigation has to do with participant investigation.
The ETIC investigation of language use has to do with the outsider. Dell Hymes proposes a method of analyzing a speech event based on the ETIC perspective.
Dell Hymes method is summarized by an acronym speaking
S- setting (time and place, arrangement of the venue)
P- participants (people participating within speech events, their characteristics in terms of gender their roles e.g. father and mother)