1) Frank is a whale. Whale would be a predicate of Frank the subject. For though Frank belongs to the class of whale, Frank is not whale itself.
2) The differences between primary and secondary substance is that primary substance is that which does not in any subject nor describes any subject. Secondary substances are that which the primary belongs to. For example Tom (primary) is a man (the genera of Tom).
3) ‘This’ refers to an individual substance (primary). For example ‘this cat is an animal’, animal would be secondary to the individual cat.
4) Aristotle does not allow for contraries, for it is the object that remains and the qualitative and quantitative properties that may change. Thus even when the size and shape may contradict themselves (a man was seated is false when the man stands up) man does not change.
5) The substances receive contraries not through themselves, but through the addition of some thing else.
6) The pre-existent knowledge needed are; the presupposed assumption of a fact, or the understanding the meaning of a term itself. Yet some times both are needed together.
7) The answer to the paradox raised in the Meno, is that we know in an unspecific way. That we have the capacity to know and thus knowledge grows from step to step.
8) We know a thing when we recognize it without quality and when the explanation is already contained within the thing.
9) The conditions needed for demonstrative knowledge is primary, true, prior to and explanatory of. These conditions are needed because for without them deduction will not produce knowledge.
10) What is meant by explanatory or prior to be that demonstrative knowledge must already have the explanation of itself (a pen is explained by the name pen) and that we must have already recognized it.
11) The premise cannot be known for it is primary, where as the demonstration derives from the...