It is evident that the shape in which the ethical pres-
criptions of Jainism have come down to us, is not a pure
one, but many of them contain a distinctly formal element,
such as the Samayika Vrata of Sravakas, -the Parihara
Visuddhi Charitra of Sadhus, or the sub-divisions of PrayaS'
chitta do, so that one might doubt whether they should not
be counted as ritualistic rather than ethical rules. But the
arrangement in which they are handed down, leaves no
doubt that Jain Tradition wants them to be counted as
Many of the rules, which could be given here only in
their original, simple form, have undergone a process of
extension and complication, in consequence of which the
ritualistic element has been put still more in the foreground.
This is the case, e.g., with the Atithi'Samvibhaga'Vrata
(the 12th Vow of Sravakas) which is, at present, generally
taken in the form that the Sravaka performs the action of
serving and feasting the " atithi, " i.e. the begging Sadhu,
after finishing certain austerities, and under certain formali-
ties. It can also be observed with reference to the
Samayika Charilra of ascetics, for which a Sadhu is not
counted fit, unless the process of "Lunchana", i.e., pluck-
ing out of the hair of his head, has been performed, nor is
he counted a full ascetic afterwards, unless he allows this
process to be repeated at least twice every year, or, at a
higher age, once a year. Another example .is the Kayot*
torga austerity, which is, at present, necessarily connected'
with the Kayotsarga posture.
Still, there is an extra chapter, in which all such pre>
scriptions are summarised from the formal, i.e. ritualistic,
stand-point. It is called the chapter of the Avasyakas,
i.e. necessary ritualistic "actions, which are to be performed
daily, at least by ascetics. The Avasyakas stand in closest
correlationship with the ethical system. Therefore, and
also on account of their fundamental importance...