University of Phoenix Material
Learning and Memory Worksheet
1. Write a 450- to 700-word essay to describe the relationship between classical and operant conditioning. Explain their elements and how they differ from one another. Additionally, provide an example for how learning can occur through each mode of conditioning. Explain how Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner contributed to the study of learning and conditioning.
To understand the relationship that classical and operant condition has you must first understand what they are to see how they work together. Classical conditioning is the processes that take creating an association between what is going on within ones environment. This includes items that are found naturally as stimulus and something that can be considered neutral. The most famous example of this is thanks to Ivan Pavlov. Ivan figured out that thanks to classical conditioning a dog would begin to salivate when it was presented with food as a stimuli. He termed what he had discovered as conditional reflex. After time he found that the dog would begin to salivate in the presence of other stimulus as well. This was due to reflexes that originate from the cerebral cortex of the brain. This makes classical conditioning a taught behavior which moves on to being a reflex after time so that you do it without thought. With classic conditioning there are unconditioned responses, conditioned stimulus, and a conditioned response. With unconditioned responses this is something that happens naturally like getting hungry when you smell food. For conditioned stimulus this would be viewed as a neutral stimulus that after time has become associated with an unconditioned stimulus. This could be like ringing a bell when feeding your dogs after time they will think of the bell ringing as food.
Now let us discuss how operant conditioning works. Operant condition focuses on reinforcement either positive or negative. With this process a person forms an...