Risks of Financial Intermediation
Interest Rate Risk
Technology and Operational Risk
Foreign Exchange Risk
Country or Sovereign Risk
Other Risks and the Interaction of Risks
Solutions for End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems: Chapter Seven
1. What is the process of asset transformation performed by a financial institution? Why does this process often lead to the creation of interest rate risk? What is interest rate risk?
Asset transformation by an FI involves purchasing primary assets and issuing secondary assets as a source of funds. The primary securities purchased by the FI often have maturity and liquidity characteristics that are different from the secondary securities issued by the FI. For example, a bank buys medium- to long-term bonds and makes medium-term loans with funds raised by issuing short-term deposits.
Interest rate risk occurs because the prices and reinvestment income characteristics of long-term assets react differently to changes in market interest rates than the prices and interest expense characteristics of short-term deposits. Interest rate risk is the effect on prices (value) and interim cash flows (interest coupon payment) caused by changes in the level of interest rates during the life of the financial asset.
2. What is refinancing risk? How is refinancing risk part of interest rate risk? If an FI funds long-term fixed-rate assets with short-term liabilities, what will be the impact on earnings of an increase in the rate of interest? A decrease in the rate of interest?
Refinancing risk is the uncertainty of the cost of a new source of funds that are being used to finance a long-term fixed-rate asset. This risk occurs when an FI is holding assets with maturities greater than the maturities of its liabilities. For example, if a bank has a...