Breast Cancer Gene
Breast Cancer affects nearly 1 in 4 women in the United States each year. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Breast cancer is a form of cancer that originates in the tissues of the breast. Using the latest technology researchers have determined that there is a specific line of genes linked to breast cancer, breast cancer (BRCA) 1 and BRCA 2 genes. The ability to test a patient for these breast cancer genes will help lead to better diagnosis and treatment for those with the gene.
Often breast cancer will start from a “single abnormal cell that grows into a benign tumor” (Mader123). The tumor originates in the milk duct, where an extra lining of cells is formed that fills the ducts, this is known as ductal carcinoma. Another form, lobular carcinoma is when the cancer begins in the lobules, which are the glands that make the milk. Breast cancer is most common in females; however, males can still have breast cancer. In women it is recommended to be screened for breast cancer via self examination or mammograms, depending on age. Women who are over the age of forty are recommended to have a mammogram done every one to two years. Age is another risk because as a person gets older their risk increases. Race and ethnicity is another risk factor; white women are more at risk for breast cancer than African American women. Only “about 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary, resulting directly from gene defects inherited from a parent” (cancer.org).
Breast cancer can be classified by either BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 gene, which defines the mutation of the breast cancer gene. This form of breast cancer is considered genetic, which is when one dominate gene is passed onto subsequent generations and can result in the BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 gene. There are genes that can help with DNA repair, but in this case it is not a damaged gene it is mutated and cannot be repaired. Females who are heterozygous for the BRCA 1...