Chapter 3 - Customer Behavior

Chapter 3 - Customer Behavior

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Learning and Memory

Chapter 3

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8e Michael Solomon

Learning Objectives
When you finish this chapter you should understand why:

• It’s important for marketers to understand how
consumers learn about products and services.

• Conditioning results in learning. • Learned associations can generalize to other things,
and why this is important to marketers.

• There is a difference between classical and
instrumental conditioning.

• We learn by observing others’ behavior.
Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 3-2

Learning Objectives (cont.)
• Memory systems work. • The other products we associate with an individual
product influences how we will remember it.

• Products help us to retrieve memories from our past. • Marketers measure our memories about products and

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009


The Learning Process
• Products as reminders of life

• Products + memory = brand

• Learning: a relatively
permanent change in behavior caused by experience

• Incidental learning: casual,
unintentional acquisition of knowledge
Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 3-4

I. Behavioral Learning Theories
• Behavioral learning theories: assume that learning
takes place as the result of responses to external events.

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009


Figure 3.1

Types of Behavioral Learning Theories
Classical conditioning: a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. Instrumental conditioning (also, operant conditioning): the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative 3-6 outcomes.

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009

I.1. Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov and his dogs

• Rang bell, then squirt dry meat
powder into dogs’ mouths

• Repeated this until dogs
salivated when the bell rang

• Meat powder = unconditioned
stimulus (UCS) because natural reaction is...

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