Chapter 3 Review
1. Tectonic plate-a block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle; also called lithospheric plate
2. Erosion- A process in which the materials of the Earth’s surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and transported from one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice, or gravity.
3. Radiation- The energy that is transferred as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves.
4. Ozone- A gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms.
5. Salinity- A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid.
For each pair of terms, explain how the meanings of the terms differ.
6. Lithosphere and asthenosphere- Lithosphere is Earth’s outer layer, it is a cool, rigid layer that is 15 km to 300 km thick that includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle. It is divided into huge pieces called tectonic plates. The asthenosphere is the layer beneath the lithosphere. The asthenosphere is a plastic, solid layer of the mantle made of rock that flows very slowly and allows tectonic plates to move on top of it.
7. Conduction and convection- Conduction is the flow of heat from a warmer object to a colder object when the objects are placed in direct physical contact. Convection is the transfer of heat by air currents. Hot air rises and cold air sinks. Thus, if you hold your hand above a hot iron, you will feel the heat because a current of hot air rises up to your hand.
8. Crust and mantle-The crust is Earth’s thin outer layer. It is made almost entirely of light elements. It makes up less than 1% of the planet’s mass. The crust is Earth’s thinnest layer. It is 5 km to 8 km thick beneath the oceans and is 20 km to 70 km thick beneath the continents. The mantle, which is the layer beneath the crust, makes up 64% of the mass of the Earth. The mantle is approximately 2,900 km thick and is made of rocks of medium density....