• How did Spain strengthen its colonies in America?
▪ missionary mestizo
▪ presidio mission
Religious Divisions Emerge in Europe
Main Idea: Starting in 1517, the Protestant Reformation spread across Northern Europe and into the American colonies, challenging the authority of the Catholic Church.
Spain Organizes Its American Empire
Main Idea: Spain sent priests and missionaries to the colonies to establish order, maintain a peaceful administration, and convert others to the Catholic Church.
Spanish Explorers Push North
Main Idea: Inspired by Cortés’s success in taking over Mexico, Hernando de Soto and Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led their own expeditions to the north.
The Pueblos Revolt Against the Spanish
Main Idea: Ravaged by disease, famine, and violence, the Pueblos revolted against the Spaniards in 1680. Although they were initially victorious, the Pueblos continued to fight with one another, and eventually Spain took them over once again.
• Juan Ponce de Leon: explored Florida
• Vasco Nunez de Balboa: crossed isthmus and saw the Pacific Ocean
• Ferdinand Magellan: sailed around the tip of South America to the Philippine Islands where he was killed.
• His men sailed around the world
• Cortes: defeated the Aztec Empire in Mexico with the help of conquered Native people
• Pizarro: fought the Incas in Peru
• Cortés: defeated the Aztec Empire in Mexico with the help of conquered native people
• By 1521 Cortés had destroyed Tenochtitlan
• Pizarro: set out to conquer the empire of the Incas, centered in what is now Peru in South America
Spanish conquistadors explored the Americas, conquering Native American peoples and starting colonies.
• The Spanish forced Native Americans to work on farms and in mines, producing great riches for Spain.
• In North America, the Spanish built missions, where priests attempted to convert Native...