Stoichiometry involves making predictions about how much of one substance should react or be produced relative to a given amount of another species involved in a reaction. This experiment reaction between metallic copper ions and silver ions in solution; to produce copper ions in solution and metallic silver atoms. The purpose of this lab was to determine the mass and mole relationship among the products and reactants for the reaction of copper with silver nitrate. The coefficients of the balanced chemical equation were then verified and the percent yield of silver metal was calculated.
Silver nitrate crystals were placed in a beaker, and the beaker was weighed. Distilled water then went into the beaker to dissolve the crystals. Coiled copper wire was weighed and hooked on a wooden splint, which was then suspended in the solution. Nitric acid was added, the observations recorded, and then the beaker was left undisturbed overnight. The copper wire was lifted out of the beaker and distilled water was used to rinse off the silver crystals. The copper wire was dried using acetone rinse, and the final mass was recorded. The silver was rinsed and decanted several times, the beaker containing the silver was heated dry on a hot plate (isolating the silver), cooled, and then weighed.
2 AgNO3 + Cu Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag
A solution of an ionic compound has available an element. The element replaces one of the ions in the solution and a new element appears from the ion in solution. This type of reaction is called a replacement because a free element replaces one of the ions in a compound. There are two types of single replacement reactions, anionic and cationic. A cationic single replacement is what happened in the case of the silver being replaced by the copper in the above reaction because both the silver and the copper are only likely to make cations.
The limiting reactant (LR) is the reagent that is used up in the reaction and on which the overall yield of product...