CHAPTER 6

c = vλ; c=2.9979x108 m/s

1Hz = 1/s; 1nm = 10-9 m; 1A=10-10 m

E=hv; h = 6.626 x 10-34Js; Av = 6.022 x 1023 photons/mol;

1 moles of photons = 6.022 x 1023 photons

E=hc/λ

ΔE = hv = -2.18 x 10-18J(1/n2f-1/n2i)

A photon is emitted when ni>nf; ΔE is negative

A photon is absorbed when nf>ni;ΔE is positive

Ryderbg formula 1/wavelength = R[1/n2i-1/n2f); R = 1.097x107

En = -RH[Z2/n2]; ΔE = - RH[Z2/n2f- Z2/n2i]; RH = 2.178 x10-18 J

ΔE = Ef – Ei = hv

1J = 1kg m2/s2

λ = h/mv

KE = ½ mv2; v2= 2KE/m

Wavelength and frequency are inversely related

Quantum numbers:

n = size (shell),

l=shape (subshell), depend on n and range from 0 to n-1

l=0 s orbital => 1 orbital

l=1 p orbital => 3 orbitals

l=2 d orbital => 5 orbitals

l=3 f orbital => 7 orbitals

ml=orientation (orbital); depend on value of l and range from –l..0…+l

The number of sublevels within a level = n

The number of orbitals within a sublevel = 2l+1

The number of orbitals in a level = n2

ms = electron’s spin; +1/2 or -1/2

Pauli Exclusion Principle = No 2 electrons in an atom can have identical sets of

4 quantum numbers.

CHAPTER 7

Effective nuclear charge, Z = increases across a period owning to incomplete screening

by inner electrons.

It decrease or changes very little down a group.

Orbital energies drop as Z increases.

Z*=[Z - (no. inner electrons)]

Atomic Radius = increases down a group because of the larger sizes of the orbitals with higher

quantum numbers.

Decreases across a period from left to right due to increase effective nuclear charge.

Ionization energy = increases across the period from left to right. Decreases going down a group.

Electron affinity = Become less exothermic down a group. Become more exothermic across a period.

Isoelectric = decreasing from left to right across a row.

1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d 7p

Chapter 8

chapter 9

Chapter 10

PA=nART/V

PA = XA x Ptotal

XA = nA/Ntotal

Ptotal = Pcollected gas +...