The Cold War
A. The Problems of Peace
a. Germany was practically in ruins due to the war ending in Europe; consequently, the Allies had begun to plan for Germany’s future and agreed on several major issues.
i. Allies agreed to temporarily divide Germany into four zones of occupation.
1. Soviet Union would control one-third of the country
2. The remaining two-thirds would be divided into three zones; to be controlled by the U.S., France, and Great Britain.
ii. Allies divided the German capitol, Berlin, into four zones of occupation.
iii. Allies worked to manifest a plan to rid Germany of any remnants of the Nazi party and beliefs.
3. At the Nuremberg trials, held between 1945 and 1949, more than two hundred Nazi and military officials were tried by courts.
iv. Allies agreed on a plan for Germany to pay for all of the debts caused by war.
b. Allied powers still argued and were in conflict due to deciding what to do with the rest of Europe post-war.
B. The Conflict Worsens
c. Soviet Union and the U.S. ultimately entered an era of hostility, tension, and aggression known as the Cold War.
d. Cold War was mainly a conflict and struggle between communism and capitalist democracy
v. As communism continued to spread through eastern Europe, tension between the Soviet Union and the U.S. continued to grow
e. In 1946 Churchill used the famous metaphor of the iron curtain to describe the sharp division of Europe that was the result of Soviet actions.
f. When Soviet-backed Communists threatened the governments of Greece and Turkey, Truman announced the Truman Doctrine; a pledge to provide economic and military support to oppose the spread of communism.
g. In the late 1940’s the U.S. government made another form of economic aid; the Marshall Plan- which provided 13$ to rebuild Europe.
C. Cold War Confrontations