Harry S. Truman was elected president in 1945. Truman made some crucial decisions in history. Soon after V-E Day, the war against Japan had reached its final stage. A plea to Japan to surrender was rejected. Truman ordered atomic bombs dropped on cities devoted to war work. They were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japanese surrendered right after. In June, 1945, Truman witnessed the signing of the charter of the United Nations to preserve peace. Truman asked Congress to introduce the Truman Doctrine which helped aided Turkey and Greece.
Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in 1953. He tried to reduce the strains of the Cold War. In 1953, the signing of a truce brought an armed peace along the border of South Korea. The death of Stalin caused changes with Russia. New Russian leaders agreed to a peace treaty neutralizing Austria. Both Russia and the United States had developed hydrogen bombs. Eisenhower met with the leaders of the British, French, and Russian governments at Geneva in July, 1955. Eisenhower focused on maintaining world peace.
John F. Kennedy was elected president in 1961. Kennedy permitted a band of Cuban exiles to invade their homeland. The attempt to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro was a failure. The Soviet Union renewed its campaign against West Berlin. Kennedy replied by reinforcing the Berlin garrison and increasing the Nation's military strength, including new efforts in outer space. After the erection of the Berlin Wall, it relaxed its pressure in central Europe. On November 22, 1963, when Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson was sworn in as President.
Lyndon B. Johnson was elected for reelection in 1964. Despite Johnson's efforts to end Communist aggression and achieve a settlement, fighting continued. Controversy of the war had become very small by the end of March 1968, when he limited the bombing of North Vietnam in order to work something out. He withdrawed as a candidate for re-election so...