Phonda E. Gamble
Axia College of University of Phoenix
Affirmative Action programs benefit many workers and businesses. However, reverse discrimination poses consequences for both employees and corporations. By examining affirmative action programs can help us understand the effectiveness and how to enhance the programs. Affirmative Action programs started back in 1961 to help ensure that there is fairness in employment hiring and promotion practices.
An understanding of affirmative action requires a familiarization with the concept. First, affirmative action is defined as an “An active effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of members of minority groups and women” (Merriam-Webster). President John F. Kennedy was the first to mention affirmative action when he ordered the creation of the Equal Opportunity Commission which was to help guarantee fair and equal treatment for employment and career advancement.
Two months after President John F. Kennedy assumed his role as the President of the United States of America he issued Executive Order 10925. This order first established the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The mission of the committee was to end discrimination in employment by government and contractors (Cahn, 1995). The order required that every government contract include the following pledge:
The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or natural origin. The contractor will take affirmative action, to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regards to their race, creed, color, or national origin.
Even after this order was executed there was sill an increased demand by blacks to have equal right not only in government jobs but also in the public and private business sectors.
In 1964, President Lynden Baines Johnson requested...