How do advertisers try to use group influence? Can you find any specific examples and describe the relevant theory of group behavior and influence?
In marketing studies, the concept of the reference group is very important. Hyman(1942) defined it as a group that influences the attitudes of those individuals who use it as a reference point for evaluating their own situation. In our real life situation, people live in different groups and interact with each other in several interpersonal relationships circles. Thus, the influence of others is an important factor for the human behavior.
Blackwell; Miniard; Engel (2005) divide human beings into several groups: primary and secondary groups. The primarygroup includes the most influential and interaction within the group. They usually share the same values, beliefs and behaviors. Our families and close friends are the main example of primary group. For the secondary group, it refers to those people that have less frequent and cohesive interaction with you; examples are relatives and professional associations.
Another relevant theory of group behavior and influence is proposed by Blackwell; Miniard; Engel (2005), it divided groups into: utilitarian influence and value expressive influence. The utilitarian influence occurs when a person submits his behavior to the expectations of others, either to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment from others. In this case, individual may change their beliefs or actions because of the pressure from a group. Those pressures may come from the fear of deviation, cultural or commitment etc. The consumer’s attitude in this group is clearly based on a utility function when the decision revolves around the amount of pain or pleasure in brings.
The second influence type is the value expressive.It occurs when an individual accepts others' influence because he or she wants to have identification. In this case, a consumer is basing their attitude regarding a product...