Corruption and bribery within the public sector, is unavoidable and endemic within all societies
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Corruption refers to the abuse or misuse of entrusted power by individuals for personal gain (Pickett & Pickett 2012). Corruption is always utilized interchangeably with bribery. In the opinion of Santoro and Strauss (2013), bribery is the giving, offering, soliciting or receiving of any valuable item to influence or sway the actions of those with power or officials in discharge of legal or public duty. Forms of corruption involve fraud, embezzlement, favoritism, collusion, and extortion. Evidence shows that corruption and bribery have been practiced for many years; although up to date, they have attracted increasing attention. It is unclear whether the attention of corruption and bribery reflect a growing awareness or a growing scope of the vice. Nonetheless, according to Cheng and Ma (2009) corruption and bribery has increased within the recent decades.
The factors or causes, which encourage corruption, are those, which influence the demand for corrupt acts, as well as those, which influence the supply of acts or deeds of corruption. Factors influencing the demand include authorizations and regulations, some spending decisions, as well as provision of services and goods at prices that are below-market. Factors influencing the supply of deeds or acts of corruption include bureaucratic tradition, penalty systems, institutional controls, level or degree of public sector incomes, transparency of laws, processes, and rules, and examples of the leadership (Bowen, Edwards & Cattell 2012).
The Causes of Bribery and Corruption
One of the factors or causes always mentioned particularly for corruption is the inadequate remuneration of employees or civil servants. One can hold against a view that within states where corruption is unchecked or rampant, unemployment is always high and civil...