With the debilitating effect of anxiety accompanied by the high risk of depression and suicidal ideation among those who struggle with anxiety disorders, it is imperative that clinicians be familiar with the symptoms and effective treatments for the disorders under this category. The diagnostic criteria provided within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM-5) for each disorder listed under the category of Anxiety Disorders has been discussed. Differential diagnosis for each disorder is mentioned within discussion of each diagnosis. This paper further discusses the potential causes of anxiety disorders including nature, nurture, genetic, and biological. The author goes on to discuss evaluation of anxiety disorders including assessment and treatment approaches. Further ideas discussed are surgery, deep-brain stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy as possible approaches to treatment resistant anxiety disorders. Finally, possible spiritual elements of an anxiety disorder are discussed along with ideas that warrant further research.
Keywords: anxiety, diagnosis, youth, adolescent, treatment, symptoms, DSM-5
Introduction of Anxiety Disorders
In order to understand the predominant symptoms of anxiety disorders one must first understand the difference between anxiety and fear. According to Kring, Johnson, Davison, and Neale (2014), anxiety is a dread or trepidation over a future problem and fear is a response to a current threat. With the hurried pace of society today, most persons will experience anxiety. It is when it causes a considerable hardship in multiple areas of life that a clinician begins to consider an anxiety disorder.
With anxiety disorders presenting at young ages and throughout the life span, they have grown to become one of the most common disorders prevalent today. Unfortunately, anxiety exhibits its presence with many...