Physical actions of consumers that can be directly observed and measured by others. It is also called overt behaviour to distinguish it from mental activities.
There are substantial differences between countries with respect to product ownership and usage, approximately 70% can be explained by culture. People’s values have a direct and indirect effect on product ownership.
A car is not only a means of transportation, it also says something about it’s owner.
Gutman – connection between attributes, benefits and values as the means-end chain model. Means are objects(products)or activities in which people engage. The means-end chain seeks to explain how the choice of a product or service facilitates the achievement of desired end states. The elements of the means end chain represents the major consumer processes that link value to behaviour. The technique used to develop means end chain is laddering, an in depth interview, one on one interviewing technique that helps develop an understanding of how consumers translate the attributes of products into meaningful associations with the respect to self.
Value structure Map
Value structure maps provide a structure of people’s associations with a brand at the three levels. They show how the types of sequent benefits and values are connected. One single product attribute can lead to various end values.
Attributes, benefits and values can be linked in what is called a value structure map. A functional benefit of the product attribute “range of colours” is choice. And an example of a psychosocial benefit is distinctive. This can be linked with being unique which in turn is linked to self confidence. This is found in most individualistic countries.
The right colours can also mean the product is “right” for my social position which can translate into feeling “fashionable” which in collectivistic cultures fits the need to conform with others. This can lead to social acceptance...