•Standardized deﬁnitions of health and illness
•Omnipotence of technology
•Maintenance of health and prevention of illness
•Annual physical examinations and diagnostic procedures Habit
•Frequent use of jargon
•Use of a systematic approach and problem-solving methodology
•Neatness and organization
•Disorderliness and disorganization
•Professional deference and adherence to the pecking order found in autocratic and bureaucratic systems
•Use of certain procedures attending birth and death
BOX 3-3 Assuring Cultural Competence in Healthcare
•Ensure that all patients/consumers receive from all staff members’ effective, understandable, and respectful care that is provided in a manner compatible with their cultural health beliefs and practices and preferred language.
•Implement strategies to recruit, retain, and promote at all levels of the organization a diverse staff and leader-ship that are representative of the demographic characteristics of the service area
•Ensure that staff at all levels and across all disciplines receive ongoing education and training in culturally and linguistically appropriate service delivery
•Offer and provide language assistance services, including bilingual staff and interpreter services, at no cost to each patient/consumer with limited English proﬁciency at all points of contact, in a timely manner during all hours of operation.
•Make available easily understood patient-related materials and post signs in the language of the commonly encountered groups and/or groups represented in the service area.
•Ensure that data on the individual patient’s/consumer’s race, ethnicity, and spoken and written language are collected in health records, integrated into the organization’s management information systems, and periodically updated
.•Maintain a current demographic, cultural, and epidemiological proﬁle of the community, as well...