Dengue infection is caused by any one of four distinct but closely related dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (called DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4). These dengue viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus—a family which includes other medically important vector-borne. Dengue viruses are arboviruses (arthropod-borne virus) that are transmitted primarily to humans through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. Transmission may also occur through transfusion of infected blood or transplantation of infected organs or tissues.
The Dengue virus is an RNA virus covered by envelope proteins, inside the proteins is a lipid bilayer and inside the lipid bilayer is a capsid shell which contains the virus RNA.
The female mosquito bites an infected human during the day and can transmit the virus to another human immediately or after 8 to 10 days of incubation within the salivary gland of the mosquito. The mosquito host remains infected for life.
After and individual is bitten by an infective mosquito, the virus undergoes an incubation period of 3 to 14 days.
Dengue infection shows itself as three syndromes: undifferentiated fever, dengue fever syndrome, and DHF/DSS
The patient experiences fever with mild non-specific symptoms that can mimic any number of other acute febrile illnesses. The non-specific presentation of symptoms make positive diagnosis difficult based on physical exam and routine tests alone. For the majority of these patients, unless dengue diagnostic serological or molecular testing is performed, the diagnosis will remain unknown. These patients are typically young children or those experiencing their first infection, and they recover fully without need for hospital care.
Occurs in adolescents and adults. After an infective mosquito bite, there is an incubation period of 3-8 days, followed by a sudden onset of fever with severe headache,...