Rote rehearsal, the principal tool for holding information in STM, is also useful for holding information in LTM.
Rote rehearsal is probably the standard method of storing conceptually meaningless material, such as phone numbers, social security numbers, security codes, computer passwords, birth dates and people’s names. For example, involves the ability to depress the keys quickly and accurately without thinking about it. Automaticity is achieved only through tedious practice..
As we have seen, rote rehearsal with the intent to learn is sometimes useful in storing information in LTM. But often, an even more effective procedure is elaborative rehearsal, the act of relating new information to something that we already know. For example, Steve faloon’s remarkable memory was based on his ability to link new numbers to long-distance running times with which he was already familiar.
A variation on the idea of elaborative rehearsal is concept of schemata. A schemata is like a script that past experience has begun writing for you, pronunciation with details to be filled in by your present experience.
To summarize, we have seen that LTM offers a vast storage space for information that we can retrieve by means of rote rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal, or activation of schemata.
Ego & Superego
Freud conceived of the ego as the psychic mechanism that controls all thinking and reasoning activities. The ego learns about the external world through the senses and sees to the satisfaction of the ID’s drives in the external world.
A personality consisting only of ego and id would be completely selfish. It would behave effectively, but unsociably. Fully adult behavior is governed not only by reality, but also by the individual’s conscience or by the
moral standards developed through interaction with parents and society. Freud called this moral watchdog the superego. EGO: Freud’s term for the part of the personality that mediates...