ENGLAND AND THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN 17th CENTURY
1) Historical Continuities : In what sense was the Reformation responsible for the growing antagoism (düşmanlık) between Parliament and the Stuart Kings; James 1 and Charles 1 ?
In England, religious divisions accentuated the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism. In England, James 1 and Charles 1 attempted to return the English Church to the elaborate rituals that many people associated with Catholicism,thereby pitting the monarchy against Parliament.
Conflicts between the Stuart Kings snd Parliament,as well as religious conflicts,which helped define the constitutional and political ins. of modern Britain. James 1 infuriated parliament by trying to rule as absolute monarch and insisted on the divine rights of kings.James described Parliament as nothing.Relations between monarchs and parliament degeberated rapidly.James 1 can into opposition in the area of religion as well because he favored a state religion.
Charles 1 supported the Anglican clergy and sought to enforce religious conformity.He went to parliament for revenue to put down the rebels.Parliament balked and Charles dissolved it.He rejected the view that his appointments to ministers and other important offices should represent a wide spectrum of political and religious views.
2) What issues divided English Puritans and Arminians?
Puritans were strongly attracted by the Calvinist idea that each individual was predestined by God through his grace to be saved or not to be saved.They emphazised preaching and the individual’s personal understanding of the Bible,spiritual devotion,discipline,and sacrifice as the basis of religion.They emphazised the personal worth of the indiviudual minister,not the value of ecclesiastical title,Puritans opposed the role of bishops in the Church of England.They wanted authority to be taken away from bishops and given to local synods..They emphasized the sacraments (such as baptism and Communion) and...