Trust versus Mistrust (Erikson's stages of psychosocial development)
 Toddlers (12-24 months)
• Weight is now approximately 3 times the child's birth weight.
• Respiration rate varies with emotional state and activity.
• Rate of growth slows
• Head size increases slowly; grows approximately 1.3 cm every six months; anterior fontanelle is nearly closed at eighteen months as bones of the skull thicken.
• Chest circumference is larger than head circumference.
• Rapid eruption of teeth; six to ten new teeth will appear.
• Legs may still appear bowed.
• Toddler will begin to lose the "Baby Fat" once he/she begins walking.
• Body shape changes; takes on more adult-like appearance; still appears top-heavy; abdomen protrudes, back is swayed.
 Motor development
• Crawls skillfully and quickly.
• Stands alone with feet spread apart, legs stiffened, and arms extended for support.
• Gets to feet unaided.
• Most children walk unassisted near the end of this period; falls often; not always able to maneuver around obstacles, such as furniture or toys.
• Uses furniture to lower self to floor; collapses backwards into a sitting position or falls forward on hands and then sits.
• Enjoys pushing or pulling toys while walking.
• Repeatedly picks up objects and throws them; direction becomes more deliberate.
• Attempts to run; has difficulty stopping and usually just drops to the floor.
• Crawls up stairs on all fours; goes down stairs in same position.
• Sits in a small chair.
• Carries toys from place to place.
• Enjoys crayons and markers for scribbling; uses whole-arm movement.
• Helps feed self; enjoys holding spoon (often upside down) and drinking from a glass or cup; not always accurate in getting utensils into mouth; frequent spills should be expected.
• Helps turn pages in book.
• Stacks two to six objects per day.
 Cognitive development
• Enjoys object-hiding activities
• Early in this...