During the Enlightenment, Galileo, Descartes, and Newton were responsible for the shift in the Scientific Revolution. They had all challenged the knowledge of the church that everyone went by. They set a new scientific status that separated the beliefs from the physical and spiritual world. They showed that a world can be with God, but can also be ruled with Natural Laws.
Galileo wrote a book about the difference between the Ptolemaic system and the Copernican system. It showed how one system believed that everything revolved around the Earth (which is what the church taught) and the other showed how everything revolved around the sun. The church was an enemy of Galileo because they thought Earth was the center of the universe to show Earth was God’s creation. He also invented the telescope which led to many philosophers discovering new planets and stars. It was also what created the Copernican system.
Desecrates was the one who thought that spiritual did not define the physical. He taught that the physical world was taught by natural laws and that the spiritual world was taught by God. He also taught that knowledge should not just come from God, but it should be taught through observation of the world and through things you experience in day to day life.
Newton also learned through observing the world. He had created the laws of motion, gravity, and physics by observing the world around and above him. That’s how we know everything now because we don’t look for God’s observations, we learn through observing on our own.
These three men has sparked the Scientific Revolution by not listening to what the church had said, but instead observed the world around them and helped make all these discoveries that we know now today.