Jute, a natural fiber, has been in use for various purposes over the centuries throughout the world. It is the bark of a slender tropical plant belonging to Tiliaceae family with two species Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius. Breakthrough in textile technology during the industrial revolution helped jute emerges as an amazing fabric from its traditional image of a raw material for cordage and rope. Since then the innumerable additions, modifications and innovations in manufacturing process turned jute into as indispensable material for an unconventional uses. The process of developing diversified use of jute still goes on unabated despite the challenge and threat from its synthetic substitutes.
Jute dicotyledenous fiber-yielding plant of the genus Corchorus, order Tiliaceae. Jute was once known as the golden fibre of Bangladesh, since it was the most important cash crop for the country. Jute fibre is produced mainly from two commercially important species, namely White Jute (Corchours capsularis), and Tossa Jute (Co chorus olitorius). The centre of origin of white jute is said to be Indo-Burma including South China, and that of tossa Africa. The word jute is probably coined from the word jhuta or jota, an Orrisan word. However, the use of jutta potta cloth was mentioned both in the Bible and Monushanghita-Mahabharat. This indicates the ancient uses of jute materials by the people of these areas. There is evidence of the trade of jute cloth in the 16th century.
AIN-I-AKBARI (1590) mentions sackcloth originating from Bengal. Jute grows under wide variation of climatic conditions and stress of tropic and subtropics. It is grown in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Nepal, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Brazil and some other countries. Bangladesh used to enjoy almost a monopoly of this fiber commercially; its share in the export market was 80% in 1947-48 but in 1975-76 it fell to only 25%. This fall in the world market was due to the...