My group’s issue presentation was based on the natural gas extraction in the Marcellus and Utica shale in the Northeastern portion of the United States. Large deposits of natural gas are estimated to be located deep within the Marcellus and Utica shale formation. The natural gas is trapped in pockets, or veins, where the shale naturally fractured during settling. It is more commercially viable to extract the shale through high volume hydro-fracking.
Marcellus shale is a geological formation that was formed by the accumulation of sediment into a sea. This formation was eventually buried over many thousands of years and compressed to produce and organic-rich black shale.
Utica shale is a large rock formation that lies mostly underneath the Marcellus shale formations. The Utica shale takes its name from the city of Utica, New York, where it outcrops or appears on the surface. It was first identified along Starch Factory creek near the town of Utica.
Hydraulic fracturing is a process of fracturing rock in order to release the natural gas from isolated veins within the shale formation. The fractured rock is kept open using a liquid typically composed of sand or other chemicals. High-volume hydraulic fracturing is named because it uses millions of gallons of water per well. In order to capture a commercially viable amount of gas from the shale formations, the well is drilled vertically to approximately 500 feet above the formation and then the well bore is turned horizontal to tap all the tiny pockets and veins of gas in the shale.
Some of the pro points for hydraulic fracturing include the fact that greenhouse gases that are produced from natural gas are significantly lower than that of those produced from black or brown coals. Hydraulic fracturing not only benefits natural gas drilling but also the employment rates of the towns and cities where it is in practice. The drilling used in North Dakota oil fields gives that state the lowest unemployment...