In order to provide a meaningful response to this question, one would have to first look at the definition of "intelligence." Intelligence can mean a variety of things to any individual or group of people. Howard Gardner's definition of intelligence is: "The ability to solve problems or create products that are valued within one or more cultural settings." Certain types of intelligence are valued more highly in different cultures depending on their social and economic needs.
For instance, early schools were formed to serve as places where one could memorize important texts (usually religious ones), which sometimes required having to translate information from a written language unknown to the student. These types of tasks would certainly provide evidence of a need to use one's verbal/linguistic intelligences. Through written language, students learned the basics of whatever mathematical formulations (logical/mathematical intelligences) were necessary to function in society.
Cultural needs also play a large role. In West Africa, for instance, "bush schools" teach children the practices they will need to know for ceremonial initiation rites as well as the crafts valued by their society. Meanwhile, students in the South Seas must commit to memory vast amounts of information about the stars in order to be able to navigate
the oceans safely (Basic Books).
Gardner has identified nine intelligences although he has also been considering the possibility of a tenth—a Spiritual Intelligence. The latter, when brought up under the context of spiritual feeling or a gift for religion, mysticism or the transcendent, usually generates a great deal of controversy with the science. The nine intelligence’s all human beings possess and their primary distinguishing characteristics are as follows:
1. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence: the capacity to use language—your native language and perhaps-other languages—to express what's on your mind and to understand other people....