The purpose of this essay is to reveal what are the causes of corruption and the factors that
create the opportunities for corruption, what are effects of corruption on economic and political
development in Armenia and in different nations. And according to this findings and the
experience of other countries that have succeeded in their fight against corruption suggest the
policies for reducing corruption in Armenia.
The first chapter of the essay mainly deals with the terms, definitions, concepts and types of
corruption. Corruption as one of the oldest and most perplexing phenomenon in human society
exists in every country. The classical conception of corruption, as a general disease of the body
politics, was stated by ancient philosophers Plato and Aristotle. They saw corruption as
dysfunctional, which is destructive of a particular political order, be it monarchy, aristocracy or
democracy. Carl Fredrich defines corruption as a deviant behavior associated with a particular
motivation, namely that of private gain at public expense. Van kKlavaren see corruption as the
exploitation of the public. There have been a number of different attempts at defining corruption.
However no precise definition can be found which applies to all forms, types and degrees of
corruption, or which would be acceptable universally. More frequently used definition of
corruption is the abuse of public office for private gain. Public office can be abused in many
ways, for example, when officials accept or extort bribe; or public office can be abused for
personal benefits even if no bribery occurs through the theft of state assets or diversion of state
The second chapter investigates the variety of causes of corruption and opportunities that
governmental structures create for corruption in Armenia and in different nations. Leslie Holmes
(1993 p.157) the causes of corruption divides into three categories, cultural, psychological, and...