English 178- Linguistics Essay
Due Date: 29 August 2007
Refer to the use of dialogue and reported speech in Hemmingway’s “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”
i) to illustrate the notions of ‘heteroglossia’ and ‘hybrid discourse’
ii) to indicate how Hemmingway characterises the two waiters in his short story, and
iii) to explain Hemmingway’s iceberg-theory on the features of a good short story.
Hemingway “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” features his iceberg theory’s principals of a good short story. As well as this, Hemingway makes use of heteroglossia and hybrid discourse in order to do this and to characterise the two waiters in the story. Hemingway’s short story can, therefore, be analysed by referring to these aspects.
Heteroglossia is seen in the dialogue in Hemingway’s short story. Heteroglossia refers to the difference in the language of individuals (idiolect), the difference in the language of society (sociolect), and the linguistic change in language (diachronic). Heteroglossia highlights the differences in speech between young and old, different cultures and different jargons. This can be seen in the short story when the young waiter is speaking to the old man and when he is speaking to the old waiter. The difference in his language can be seen as he treats the old man as if he is stupid “No more tonight. Close now”. However, when speaking to the older waiter, the young waiter as if he is an equal or at least worthy of having a conversation with. Heteroglossia is, therefore, present in Hemingway’s short story.
Hybrid discourse is seen through the reported speech in Hemingway’s “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”. Hybrid discourse refers to a blend of two languages within a single statement. In Hemmingway’s novel this is seen when the narrator takes on the language of the characters in the reported speech. “Give us this nada our daily nada” combines the Lord’s Prayer...