HEMOGLOBIN & MYOGLOBIN
WHEN THE FIRST SUBUNIT OXYGENATES OR DEOXYGENATES THE FOLLOWING THREE SUBUNITS FOLLOW SUIT AND THE SHAPE OF THE HBG MOLECULE IS CHANGED.
• R state (relaxed) • When O2 is present, it binds to the iron attached to each heme and tugs on it which in turn flattens the heme to a planar shape • The color of oxygenated blood is red (macroscopic) • Carried from the heart throughout the body by the systemic arteries
• T state (tense) • When no O2 is present the iron attached to each heme makes it into a dome shape • The color of deoxygenated blood is blue (macroscopic) • Carried from the body back to the heart by the systemic veins to be re – oxygenated in the lungs
• O2 in lungs bound to hemoglobin • Hgb travels through the body picking up CO2 from the cells and lowers the pH level • Lower pH levels allow the Hgb to release O2 more easily to the organs • When the pH is lower Hgb releases the needed amount of O2 throughout the body instead of targeting one areas so the whole body gets oxygen it needs to sustain organ life and excrete toxins • If pH is to high the Hgb cannot distribute the O2 effectively to the body • The Bohr effect gives the Hgb the strength it needs to travel through the whole body
MOLECULAR LEVEL BETWEEN NORMAL HGB AND SICKLE CELL HGB
CELLULAR LEVEL OF NORMAL HGB AND SICKLE CELL HGB
OXYGEN CARRYING CAPACITY
• Normal Red Blood Cells: • Can bind to O2 • Round concave shape • Travels through the body easily and releases O2 to organs and capillaries • Lifespan of 120 days • Sickled Red Blood Cells: • Can bind to O2 • Crescent shape • Unable to have the capacity to carry O2 throughout the body because of its shape • Block the blood flow to organs and capillaries because the stick together in the blood vessels
• Lifespan of 10-20 days
SICKLE CELL INHERITANCE
• Has beta subunit of valine where...