Module Number 1
July 18, 2013
1. Many reformers tried to improve prison conditions in the 18th century. Name at least three and describe their major contributions.
According to Allen & Latessa (2013), the eighteenth century was known as the Age of Enlightenment, where several philosophers recognized humanity’s essential dignity and imperfection. A few of the reformers like Charles Montesquieu, Voltaire, Cesare Beccaria, Jeremy Bentham, John Howard, and William Penn opened the gates to reform.
The enlightenment happened in the 18th century and people used their reasoning skills to discover the work and reject authority of the state and church. Charles Montesquieu contribution to the enlightenment by attempting to write the law, the subject of the law, and human happiness. He wanted a state where aristocracy would place boundaries on French absolutism, because he was anti-slavery.
Voltaire (Francois Arouet) hated the Catholic Church even though the Jesuits educated him. According to "The Age of Enlightenment" (N.A.), described the Roman Catholic Church as fountain headed and bulwark of evil. To enhance his position he endeared himself to Pope Benedict XIV. The Pope respected the Enlightenment, especially when it came to tolerance, which brought a storm of protest towards himself because of his friendship with Voltaire.
Cesare Beccaria was a criminologist and economist. The enlightenment was dedicated on “waging relentless war against economic disorder, bureaucratic tyranny, and religious narrow-minded and intellectual pedantry.” They wanted to promote economic, administrative, and political reform. He was encouraged to read French and British writings on Enlightenment and to start writing himself; he eventually composed his first essay called, “On the remedies for the Monetary Disorders of Milan in the year 1762.”
Beccaria felt that the criminal justice system needed to be reformed because of their barbarous ways...