HISTROY OF URBANIZATION :HISTROY OF URBANIZATION Beginning of urbanization in 1951 Industrial and commercial expansion in 1961 Migration of people 1972 to larger cities Expenditure of provisional government 1980’s Declaration of 9 cities as million class in 2003
Trend of urbanization in Pakistan 1951-1998 :Trend of urbanization in Pakistan 1951-1998
REASONS OF URBANIZATION :REASONS OF URBANIZATION PUSHY FACTORS: Rapid population growth Political reasons Feudal system Natural factor as draught or famine unemployment PUSH FACTOR: Medical and educational facilities Better transportation Job opportunities Better living standards Better ambiance
CONSEQUENCES OF URBANIZATION :CONSEQUENCES OF URBANIZATION Slums and squatter settlements are springing up at an ever-increasing rate rapid urban expansion is changing the face of the cities.Declining environmental quality Modification of microclimate and loss of natural habitat .inadequate housing, transportation, public services ( sanitation, education, health), which threaten human health and quality of life
Waste disposal deficiencies of food, water, fuel and other basic need
Traffic congestion overcrowding; witnessed in schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals, parks and places of public utility.Sever degradation of surrounding environment and ecological system of urban hinterlands, excreting heavy demand on their resources; Demographic transformation of migration from rural to urban areas have sever social, economic and environmental consequences high rates of unemployment and related social pathologies, such as crimes
REMEDIES :REMEDIES 10 years perspective development plan 2001-2011 & 3 year development programme Establishment of new urban centers, Industrial estates and satellite towns around major cities to disperse rural to urban migration Community participation along with administrative and financial empowerment of local Government Preparation and implementation of updated Master Plans of major...