What is a computer?
omputer is a machine that accepts information (data), processes it according to some specified scheme (program/system), and provides the result as new information. It is an electronic device that is capable of processing, storing, and retrieving information. It operates under a predefined set of instructions called program.
omputer System (shortened to just computer) – is used to denote a set of computer hardware and software that is used as a single unit.
Functional Elements of the Computer
1. Input Unit/Devices – refers to the elements necessary for the feeding of raw data or instructions to the CPU of the computer in a machine-readable format. (keyboard, monitor, mouse)
- provides the transfer of information between the user and the computer
- provides the principal means of communicating with the computer and moving data and program into the primary storage for processing.
2. Processing Unit – is the element where processing or calculating function takes place. It is here where raw data are transformed into meaningful information. The CPU is the brain (data are stored & processed) or the nerve center of the computer (mother unit)
- It interprets the instructions, performs calculation and direct the input, storage and output operation of the computer.
The CPU has 3 parts, namely:
a. arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) – for mathematical calculation and logical operations
b. Memory/storage unit (primary memory, ex. RAM-IC chip and Secondary memory, ex. Diskette)
c. Control unit (CU) – retrieves an instruction from the primary storage, translates the instruction into an appropriate electrical signals
3. Output unit/devices - is element wherein the final stage in computer operations takes place. In this function, processed data are converted into a format understandable by people (monitor, printer)...