The ideal of liberty
Otto of Freising- new social order arisen in Northern Italy. No feudal society in character. Land is divided among the cities. Cities evolved a form of political life at odds with prevailing assumption that hereditary monarchy constituted the only sound form of government. They turned themselves into independent republics, governed by the rule of consuls, not rulers who changed every year.
- first case of this, Pisa 1085, then to Lombardy, Tuscany, Milan (1097), Arezzo and Lucca, Bologna, and Siena (by 1125).
Later, a stabler elective government came about. It was centered on the official (podesta), who was invested with the supreme power (potestas) over the city. This official was a citizen of another city so there were no loyalties to people. Elected by popular mandate. He would have two councils, one of ^200 and one of 40. He is the judicial and administrative officer, and leading spokesman. Never and independent ruler, always a salaried official. Term, 6 months. Could not initiate political decisions.
Frederick Barbarossa- got Lombardy after the first two expeditions. He then got Milan, 1162. This united factious cities against him. In in 1167, Milan took lead to build the Lombard League against him and resist his demands. 29 cities joined. Barbarossa returned in 1174 to reimpose authority, but failed because of the league. In 1193, he renounced any right to interfere with gov’t of the Lombard cities.
Frederick II- wanted to reenter the unity of the empire in 1235. At first, he was successful. Captures Vicenza in 1236, and ferrara the following year. 1237 he imposed a crushing defeat on the armies of Lombard league at cortenuova. These victories reunited his enemies. The Milanese recaptured ferrara in 1239, they eventually succeeded in bringing the dreams of the imperialists to an ignominious close . at the end of 1250, Frederick died.
Henry of Luxemburg- arrived in italy 1310. Went Cremona, lodi,...