Implicit Memory in amnesia and normal subjects.
Memory for a recent event can be expressed explicitly, as conscious recollection. It is implicit. Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Evidence for implicit memory arises (происходит) in priming, a process whereby subjects show improved performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. In daily life, people rely on (полагаться) implicit memory. Everyday we do such activities as tying the shoes, reading, writing, driving, and riding a bicycle without thinking about these activities.
Much of what we know about implicit memory we have learned from people who suffer amnesia. Amnesia refers (упоминает) to a loss of memory. The causes of amnesia are different. They may be due to accidental injuries to the brain, alcoholism, surgical procedures.
The first evidence (признак) of amnesia is an inability to acquire new information or to remember day-to-day events. This type of amnesia is referred to as anterograde amnesia, and it can be very extensive. And the second evidence or symptom of amnesia is an inability to remember events that happened prior injuries and disease. This is referred to as retrograde amnesia. Asides from these memory losses the typical amnesia appears normal: they have a normal vocabulary, the usual knowledge about the world and general shows no loss of intelligence. It suggests people have a different memory for the facts and other for skills. Hence (следовательно) explicit and implicit memories are different systems. We compared amnesiac’s and normal subject’s implicit memory by using one experiment. In the first stage amnesiac and normal subjects were presented a list of words to study. In the second stage, fragments of words on the list and fragments of words not on the list were presented, and subjects tried to complete them. The normal did it well,...