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PUJIT R. VAISHNAV Kunal Arora
IP Address Classes
Unique IP (Internet Protocol) addresses are assigned to each physical connection of a device to a network, therefore if a device (host) has more than one connection to a network or networks, then it will have more than one IP address.
An IP address is represented as four decimal integers, with each integer corresponding to one byte this means an IP address is 32 bits long as per the following example:-
162. 146. 93. 14 dotted decimal
10100010. 10010010. 01011101. 00001110 binary
IP addresses are divided into two parts, a Network ID and a Host ID each of which can be of varying bit lengths but always making 32 bits altogether.
Hint:- Use the Windows calculator to convert binary to decimal and vice versa.
There are five primary classes of IP addresses and it is the high order 3 bits of the address which identify the class as shown below:-
First Octet Example Network Host
Class A 0xxxxxxx 1-127 18.104.22.168 1
Class B 10xxxxxx 128-191 22.214.171.124 1
Class C 110xxxxx 192-223 126.96.36.199 1
Class D 1110xxxx 224-239 188.8.131.52 1
Class E 11110000 240-254 242.5.7.0 1
Class A addresses contain 7 bits in the network portion giving 27 - 2 = 126 possible networks since all 1's and all 0's are not allowed. Consequently 24 bits remain for the host portion allowing a total of 224 - 2 = 16,777,214 hosts. 127.0.0.0/8 is reserved for loopback address purposes where just 127.0.0.1 is used normally. The address 255.255.255.255 is used as broadcast addresses and 0.0.0.0 as a default route address, meaning any network. The address 0.0.0.0 is sometimes...