THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Managers who understand what motivates employees have a good basis in improving their approaches towards the employee motivation.
For a long time, organizations have been trying to increase worker productivity by increasing pay, providing better working conditions and offering greater benefits. But still the output is stagnant or even lags behind. Perhaps, the motivation of employee is not monetary.
The key to increased productivity lies not so much in giving employees more, but managing them better, with concern for balancing individual need with organizational goals. (Andres T)
Today, managers are interactive in terms of employee motivation. In a study conducted by Loryea (1992) communication was used s as independent variable in determining its relationship with job motivation and job satisfaction.
While Amler (1992) concluded that the study of incentive compensation is a tool in increasing motivation and improve productivity.
This study was premised on the different theories that proposed the different basic human needs. In the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom, it states that people tend to choose behaviours that they believe will help them achieve their personal goals. (e.g., promotion or job security) and avoid behaviours that they believe will lead to undesirable personal consequences. (e.g., a demotion or criticism)
As Abraham H. Maslow offered a general theory of motivation, called the “Needs Hierarchy Theory”. He felt that people have a wide range of needs which motivate them to strive for their fulfilment. Human needs can be categories into five types: the Physical needs, safety and security needs, affiliation or social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs.
According to Lyman w. Porte and Edward E. Lawler, the valence, expectancy and the...